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Blekeshova Akzhan Nurlanovna,
2nd year master student,
International Information Technology University,
Kazakhstan, Almaty
          The article is devoted to the problem of drawing up a plan for the teaching load of the teaching staff of the university department and automating this process by creating a software tool for compiling and distributing the teaching load. For these purposes, the theoretical aspects of the process of drawing up a load plan for the department are considered.
           The main purpose of the functioning of the department of the university is to meet the needs for training or advanced training using new educational technologies and high-quality provision of the educational process.
          Establish a different volume of training assignments for teachers of the department, based on the specifics of the assignments they carry out and the needs of the department;
prioritize the inclusion of types of work in the individual teacher's plan in accordance with the planned task of the department for the year.
          The individual teaching staff plan is drawn up on the basis of the formed work plan of the department and should include all types of work assigned to the teacher by the head of the department.
          Keywords: optimum planning, nonlinear model, working time, «the second half of the day»
Each university teacher, just entering the field of teaching, knows what he should do: conduct lectures and practical exercises, write articles and manuals (teaching materials: textbooks, teaching aids, guidelines, etc.), to engage in science - scientific, creative, research activities. This is how, in a few words, one can briefly characterize the basic labor functions of a higher school teacher; moreover, throughout the entire time that the higher school existed and exists, the performance of this labor function is viewed by teachers as a commitment that requires its fulfillment, regardless of any external conditions and circumstances. This follows from the specifics and essence of the work of a higher school teacher.
          This article is devoted to one of the topical problems of higher education - the problem of distributing the working time of teachers.
          This topic has always been relevant, was the subject of research interest of the teachers themselves, from the historical perspective of the problem, from general theoretical approaches, ending with specific standards. At the same time, the urgency of this issue in the last decade has been growing exponentially, which, according to the author, is associated with the following reasons, which are formulated below in the form of three problems.
          The problem of the “bureaucratic shaft”. The growth of the types of labor activity of a teacher - in particular, in the last fifteen years, one more, rather voluminous in terms of labor costs and time, has been added to the basic labor functions of a teacher in higher education. This function is associated with the work on the preparation of documents accompanying the educational process. The transition to new educational standards - third generation standards, modernized (updated) third generation standards, two time=4ss updated third generation standards (in administrative practice they go under the abbreviation FSES 3 ++), in the near future - fourth generation standards - significantly aggravates this process.
          The problem of “900 hours” is an increase in the standards of the study load. 900 hours is the maximum allowed normative workload of a teacher in an academic year; As practice shows, in the face of reduced funding in many universities, 900 hours is the only possible standard for almost all categories of teachers. Including professors and assistants. Usually, the reduction of standards is practiced only for heads of departments and deans, in connection with the administrative and representative function, and this is understandable. But if historically the standards for assistants were already within such limits (even reached 1000 hours), then in relation to professors - “it never happened, and now again” (c); at the same time, not only does the quality of education suffer from an increase in the standards of the teaching load - teachers simply physically do not have enough time for high-quality revision and updating of courses, engaging in scientific work, and advanced training; there is also a secondary effect - “syndrome of unlearned lessons” - a constant feeling of guilt, which ultimately leads to increased neurotization and emotional burnout;
          The problem of the "second half of the day" - if there are still standards for educational work, which in the conditions of modernization of higher education drifted towards.
          “Throat” load, that is, towards classroom studies - due to a decrease in the standards for coursework, diploma (final qualification) work - the transition from a specialist to a bachelor's degree in almost all areas of training, then for “In the afternoon” of the teacher, scientifically developed, or at least recommended by some document, standards are absent. Standards
          The “afternoon” should be regulated by the local normative act of the university; specific standards that appear in a typical document are either described by the phrase “according to the actual time spent”, or are the result of “historically established” approaches: for example, educational and methodological work - 30–40% of the time - nor from the teacher's "afternoon". The author honestly tried to study the system “Consultant-plus”, find the original historical document recommending this standard (as well as the rest: research work 30–35%, organizational and methodological work 15–20%, etc.), but did not find ... I would be grateful if one of my colleagues clarified this issue. In connection with the rationing of the “afternoon” of the teacher, a number of questions arise: what are the consequences of exceeding the working time in the “afternoon” of the teacher's day? Should I be paid for excess working hours? How to fix this excess: an act of work performed, a decision of the department, a memo of the head of the department, etc.? But these are issues that fall within the jurisdiction of labor law professionals.
          Thus, the issue of labor rationing, the distribution of the teacher's working time is currently more relevant than ever, and recently, the “emotional intensity” of articles devoted to this issue is increasing. The work [1] presents the results of a sociological study of the current situation; mostly, of course. this topic is investigated from a regulatory and legal point of view and from the point of view of labor economics [2–5], however, there are works in this area that use mathematical methods of solution [6].
If we turn to the mathematical aspect of this problem (and where there are quantitative characteristics and restrictions on them, you can always construct an interesting mathematical problem), this problem is one of the problems of the mathematical theory of organizations, an interdisciplinary area that combines the methods of mathematics , computer science and social sciences
          The main goal of the functioning of the department of the university is to meet the needs for training or advanced training using new educational technologies and high-quality provision of the educational process.
The effective implementation of educational technologies for training specialists is possible only if the appropriate organizational, personnel and material conditions are created.
In this regard, the main tasks of the head of the department include:
  • conducting lectures, laboratory, practical, seminar and other types of training provided by the curriculum in all forms of training, at a high theoretical and scientific level;
  • management of educational, industrial and pre-diploma practice, course and diploma design, course and diploma projects (works), as well as independent work of students in studying the disciplines of the department;
  • conducting course examinations and tests;
  • satisfying the needs of the individual for intellectual, cultural and moral development through higher and postgraduate professional education;
  • meeting the needs of society and the state in qualified specialists with higher education and scientific and pedagogical personnel of higher qualifications;
  • development, submission for approval in accordance with the established procedure and implementation of curricula and university educational standards in areas and specialties of training, educational standards for academic disciplines of the department, as well as preparation of conclusions on curricula drawn up by other departments;
  • management of research work of students;
  • discussion of completed research projects, implementation of the results of these works in production; recommendations for the publication of completed scientific works;
  • consideration of individual plans for teaching and educational, scientific, methodological and other work of the department staff and the study, generalization and dissemination of the experience of the best teachers;
  • assistance to novice teachers in mastering pedagogical skills;
  • development and implementation of measures for the use of modern information and computer technologies, audio and video equipment, and other technical means during training sessions;
  • training of scientific and pedagogical personnel, consideration of dissertations submitted for defense by the staff of the department or on behalf of the university administration and dissertation councils of the faculty by other applicants;
  • providing practical assistance in the employment of young professionals and organizing systematic communication with the graduates of the department and the management of enterprises, institutions and the organization where they work;
  • establishing communication with enterprises, institutions and organizations in order to generalize and disseminate best practices, to provide them with scientific and technical assistance;
  • carrying out measures to improve the qualifications of specialists employed in various sectors of the national economy, culture, education and health care;
  • organizing the participation of teachers, staff, students, postgraduates and doctoral students of the department in competitions, conferences, seminars, etc.
  • It is known that the workload planning process usually has a standard set of inputs and outputs, as well as a minimum set of control actions based on the available mechanisms.
          Domain analysis
The positions of teaching staff of organizations carrying out educational activities. Within the framework of the research, the following positions of teaching staff are considered, referred to the teaching staff (teaching staff): director of the institute, dean of the faculty, head of the department, professor, associate professor, senior teacher, teacher, assistant ( hereinafter referred to as teachers).
Currently, the main document regulating the work of a teacher (requirements for education, qualification level, job functions and actions, etc.) is the professional standard of a teacher
          Table 1. Positions of teaching staff
Job titles
Academic work
Methodical (educational and methodical and scientific and methodical)
Research work with students
Professional support / guidance
Senior Lecturer,
Teaching training courses, disciplines (modules) or conducting certain types of training sessions for undergraduate programs
Development, under the guidance of a specialist of higher qualifications, of educational and methodological support for the implementation of training courses, disciplines (modules) or certain types of training sessions for bachelor's
Organization of research, design, educational and professional and other activities of students for undergraduate and (or) APP programs under the guidance of a specialist of higher qualifications
Professional support of assistants and teachers, quality control of their training sessions
Teaching courses, disciplines (modules) for bachelor's, specialist's, master's programs
Development of scientific and methodological support for the implementation of supervised educational courses, disciplines (modules) of bachelor's, specialist's, master's
Leadership of research, design, educational and professional and other activities of students under bachelor's, specialist's, master's and (or) APP programs
Professional support of specialists participating in the implementation of supervised training courses, disciplines (modules), organization of educational and professional, research, project and other activities of students under HE and (or) APP programs
Teaching training courses, disciplines (modules) for training programs and highly qualified personnel
Development of scientific and methodological support for the implementation of training programs for highly qualified personnel
Leadership in the preparation of graduate students (adjuncts) on an individual curriculum.
Management of clinical training of residents.
Leading a group of specialists involved in the implementation of educational programs of HE and (or) APP
Based on the analysis of the professional standard, the main groups of teachers' work are identified.
 APP stands for “Additional professional programs”. It should also be noted that in the professional standard the labor functions of a teacher are specified: for example, research work is supposed to be research work with students, and the teacher's own independent research work is referred to the section
Thus, based on the analysis of normative documents, as well as on the basis of the established administrative practice, within the framework of the study, it is proposed to consider 7 groups of teachers' work. These groups of works can be interpreted as sections of the teacher's individual plan (IPP).
Table 2. Differentiation models
Differentiation of teaching load (hour)
1 Director of the Institute
2 Dean of the Faculty
3 Head of department
4 Professor
5 Associate Professor
6 Senior Lecturer
7 Teacher
8 Assistant
 In accordance with the document, the requirement of differentiation of the upper limits of the teaching load (educational (teaching) work) depending on the position held and the level of the teacher's qualifications is mandatory. The author of this article has constructed and analyzed various models of the distribution of the upper limits of the teaching load by teaching staff positions (hereinafter referred to as differentiation models - linear and nonlinear) and selected the most effective ones (Table 2).
          Table 3. Additional restrictions
Additional restrictions
Institute Director
administrative and organizational work - at least 400 hours
Dean of the Faculty
administrative and organizational work - at least 300 hours
Head of the Department
professional support / guidance - at least 100 hours; administrative and organizational work - at least 250 hours
professional support / guidance
Assistant professor
- not less than 100 hours; scientific research work of a teacher - at least 400 hours; administrative and organizational work - at least 50 hours
Senior Lecturer
methodical work - at least 300 hours; professional support / guidance
- not less than 60 hours; scientific research work of a teacher - at least 250 hours; administrative and organizational work - not
less than 50 hours
          Formulation of research objectives
 Build and analyze models of distribution of the non-standardized part of the teacher's working time (“the second half of the day”).
Modeling conditions: groups of works: 2–7 (see table 2); models of differentiation of teaching load: 1–3 (see table 3); positions of teaching staff: 1–8 (see table. 3); the total volume of the teacher's working time in the academic year is 1500 hours.
This task is divided into three local tasks:
- task 1: finding the optimal distribution of time for the "second half of the day" for a certain position of the teacher;
- task 2: finding the optimal distribution of the "afternoon" time for all teaching staff positions, taking into account the established model of differentiation of the teaching load;
- task 3: finding the values ​​of the volumes of the non-standardized part of the working time in the department for the academic year, taking into account: the established model of differentiation of the teaching load, the distribution of the number of teaching staff by positions held and the optimal distribution of working time "in the second half of the day »Teachers of the department.
          Thus, the models of the optimal distribution of the “afternoon” of the teacher's working time have been developed and implemented in the system. The conditions for modeling are determined based on the analysis of the subject area. Variants of the analysis of the results obtained are presented.
Practical application of the constructed models:
- the model for solving problem 1 seems to be promising to use as a tool when planning working time for an academic year - when filling out the individual teacher plan (IPP);
their decisions concerning the regulation of the working time of teachers requires the use of a mathematical apparatus, including the construction of models and subject analysis of the results;
- the problem of optimal planning of teachers' working time belongs to the problems of nonlinear optimization; the solution of such problems is realized in the systems of scientific and technical calculations, which have the appropriate tools - methods and functions for solving optimization problems;
- setting and solving problems of optimal planning of the teacher's working time requires knowledge of the subject area and practical experience both in planning work and in the direct performance of work, since many types of work of teachers belong to the category of creative (research) activity, and for such types of work, the definition of standards is a difficult task.
          Literature review
  1. Kurbatova M.V., Donova I.V. Effekty vneshnego kontrolya deyatel’nosti prepodavateley rossiyskikh vuzov // Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Seriya: Ekonomika. 2019. № 2. Pp. 17–27. (in Russ.)
  2. Mikhalkina E.V., Skachkova L.S.,  Gaponenko N.V. Analiz norm truda professorsko- prepodavatel’skogo sostava vuza // Ekonomika obrazovaniya. 2019. № 2. Pp. 21–33. (in Russ.)
  3. Grigorash O.V. O neobkhodimosti izmeneniya norm vremeni pedagogicheskoy raboty professorsko- prepodavatel’skogo sostava //Politematicheskiy setevoy elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta.
  4. Polyanskaya N.M., Berezhnova O.N. Organizatsiya i normirovanie truda prepodavatelya vysshey shkoly// Obrazovatel’naya sreda segodnya: strategii razvitiya. 2015. № 1 (2). Pp. 444–446. (in Russ.)
  5. Shmeleva O.G., Lebedeva A.V. Oplata truda pedagogicheskikh rabotnikov v organizatsiyakh, osushchestvlyayushchikh            obrazovatel’nuyu deyatel’nost’ po realizatsii obrazovatel’nykh programm vysshego obrazovaniya // Vestnik Kazanskogo yuridicheskogo instituta MVD Rossii. 2015. № 1 (19). Pp. 34–38. (in Russ.)
  6. Kucheryuk V.I., Umanskaya O.L., Krivchun
  7. N.A. Optimal’noe planirovanie raboty prepodavatelya vuza // Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2017. № 1–1. Pp. 131. (in Russ.)
  8. Cioffi-Revilla C. Computation and Social Science // Introduction to Computational Social Science. 2014. Pp. 23–66.
  9. Carley K.M. Computational and mathematical organization theory: Perspective and directions // Computational & mathematical organization theory. Vol. 1. №. 1. Pp. 39–56.
  10. Costa C.A.B., Oliveira M.D. A multicriteria decision analysis model for faculty evaluation // Omega. 2012. T. 40. №. 4. Pp. 424–436.
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