Дата публикации: 19.04.2022
Mobile assisted language learning is widespread in daily life of people and surveyed in CALL research rapidly. A number of researchers show the emergent mobile technologies have substantial capabilities for the effective language teaching and learning. This study concentrates on the survey of recently emergent mobile technologies or pedagogical applications for language learners and teachers. This paper also investigates the effect of mobile assisted learning environment and its positive and negative sides. Finally, it is hoped that this piece of work will explain and measure students’ perceptions towards the mobile learning. The enormous benefit of mobile technology is that it can be used anytime and anywhere and it provides improving speaking skills and enhancing students’ learning experiences both online and on sight learning.
Keywords: mobile assisted language learning, mobile devices, foreign language learning, perceptions, MALL, smartphones.
Teaching foreign language in a high education is closely connected with the use of mobile applications in it. Because of developing and increasing mobile devices was provided the changing the way of individuals communicate, work, learn and teach in the 21st century. Mobile devices will be both an effective learning and teaching tool of foreign language sphere (Lin, Chen & Lui, 2017).
According to Hu and McGrath (2011), mobile devices have a high precedence in educational system. In another words, mobile learning is easy learning anytime and anywhere via mobile devices.
Conejar and Kim (2014) support the point that in future students will be able to create own smart devices through the accessible technology and it will be provided effectiveness of foreign language learning. However, combine mobile devices into learning process does not ensure effective learning. That’s why mobile devices must be attended a pedagogical shift which will provide students profit in learning process.
Chen and Li (2010) suggested that a large number of researches show that mobile learning technologies can be successfully used in vocabulary and grammar teaching and also develop reading skills (Hsu, Hwang & Chang, 2013) and to build up writing skills (Ivic and Jakopec, 2016).
There are numerous researches explain that mobile learning tools can provide learners the opportunity to listen and record their own pronunciation or voice which will improve learners speaking skills.
Additionally, some studies show that mobile devices may allow students in building up academic achievement (Huang, Lin & Cheng, 2010).
Because the recent achievements in technology changed the attitude to education that learners have and provided them capability to study effectively. So, there are a large number of applications that implement the ideas of teaching English using technical resources on the platform of mobile devices for this reason. Also it will be explored the attitudes of the students towards mobile assisted language learning supplementation in this research.
The aim of the research is to discover effective mobile assisted language teaching techniques; to construct effective relationship between teaching and students’ learning; to check cause and effect of mobile assisted language learning.
Mobile assisted language learning is one of the most widespread scientific work which is investigated by large number of scholars in the 21st century. This term firstly appeared in 2005, when some USA universities began to give their students free mobile devices (Chinnery, 2006). Mobile learning devices are just instructional tools and he also suggest that effectiveness of mobile learning depends on the existence of an instructor with good pedagogical knowledge (Chinnery). Then Traxler (2007) defined mobile learning had been provided handheld or palmtop devices of any educational provision. This is its esssential features which make mobile assisted language learning as a significant topic among scientists.
According to Brown (2001), the earliest educational practices of mobile devices were indicated in the UK and the USA around 2000. Unfortunately they were artificial trials in laboratory settings and it wasn’t being mobile at all.
Lately, in 2004 Duke University handed out free IPods to all of its class students (Belanger, 2005).
Afterwards, scholars stated that mobile devises were widely used by students. For example, very recent study has shown that mobile phones are widely used by university students than mobile devises. According to Kukulska-Hulme (2006), an increasing of mobile technologies has given an opportunity ordinary people to take advantage of the “anywhere and anytime” learning development. Despite of its advantages it would be a misunderstanding to believe that one can learn only via these mobile learning tools.
As definition of essential concepts of mobile assisted language learning which were above MALL provides to an “anytime and anywhere” approach to language learning that develops learning through the use of mobile devices.
Performance in technology absolutely changed the perception to education that current learners have because of mobile-assisted language learning and it is the most progressive branches of computer-assisted language learning. The term “mobile learning” indicates interaction of some elements as mobility of technology , mobility of learners and mobility of learning. The modern mobile devices and technologies have changed the structure of learning.
This study has deal of evidence that mobile-assisted language learning provides students’ new possibilities and encourages the learning process through engagement and cooperation.
Currently, mobile applications have a major position in education. Numerous educational applications have appeared that emphasize learning English such are Duolingo, Lingualo, Busuu, Easy ten, Google translator or dictionary Abby Linguo.
In terms of applications for language analysis, grammar and vocabulary learning have initially proven to be successful and we would expect to see more significance over time in these fields. The using of text messaging and e-mail in vocabulary learning, including interval learning, has also been documented in published research (Levy & Kennedy, 2005).
Samuels (2003) claimed using of handheld computers for tasks such as grammar exercises, adding diacritics and synchronous chat with texts; Chuang (2008) researched both computer and the use of smartphones in grammar learning.
Learners may also enter organized groups of online learners using their mobile devices where language skills can be exercised with other participants (Niesner, 2010).
Joseph (2009) defined a "crowdsourcing" approach that combines mobile content with language
and culture materials created and shared by learners through a community site.
Using mobile devices to access newspapers and other news sources has increased the opportunity to routinely read in a second or foreign language.
However, unless learners are highly self-motivated, successful pedagogical design will
still rely on the efficacy of this method of learning (Fisher et al., 2009).
Admission to podcasts and other audio sources has also expanded the ability to listen more often
to foreign languages, either casually or as part of a routine life that may involve daily travel.
Listening exercises can be carried out successfully on a cell phone or MP3 player while sitting in doing houseworks or travelling (Demouy & Kukulska-Hulme, 2010).
Mobile devices make it easier for unconfident dent learners to blend in and practice speech or pronunciation in private spaces; a computer shared with friends or family members may provide less privacy even inside the home.
Constructive factors found in a meaningful project with young people who used cell phones to learn Irish include the ability to improve speaking and pronunciation and obtain private input from teachers, while also being able to communicate and practice with each other (Keogh & Ní Mhurchú, 2009). The adoption of shared text annotation tools, such as moving around a portable device in class, ensures that a statement can be added by each learner. The prospect of instantly sharing what has been posted, even via mobile blogging, will increase motivation.
Baron (2008, p. 6), however, warned that countless opportunities to write by posting messages can erode our collective sense that writing quality matters.
Mobile learning is continually situated at the intersection of formal and informal learning, with a bridge between the two created by mobile devices.
Shao, Crook, and Koleva (2007) suggested an informal mobile community blog in a formal education scenario to assist students spending time at a foreign university, enabling students to exchange perspectives on the use and customs of local languages.
Other researchers have provided interest in informal learning; for instance, Song and Fox (2008) documented how a mobile device was used by some English student learners to help and expand their learning in self-directed ways, motivated by an objective to take every opportunity to learn new English vocabulary.
A cross-platform approach was used by Fallahkhair, Pemberton, and Griffi ths (2007), which employed mobile phones and television for informal home language learning.
Kukulska-Hulme and Bull (2009) linked mobile learning to the issue of "noticing" in the acquisition of second language, arguing that mobile devices may facilitate noticing, and that
the recording of consciously observed features often offers a way to collect data on what learners perceive, complementing established experimental approaches to second language learner processes study.
In classroom education, learning mobile technology introduces greater fluidity and brings learning out of the classroom, often beyond the teacher's reach and influence.
This can be regarded as a threat or obviously a possibility to revitalize and reinvent existing teaching and learning methods. Mobile learning designs that clearly describe what is best learned in classrooms what can or should be learned out of classroom and how ties can be made between these environments are crucial to create.
This is best achieved for learners in consultation. .
One solution was to provide students with devices as support resources when they embark on their practices, including language learning; Duke University in the USA, which provided iPods to all first-year students, was a well-publicized example.
Mobile communities, such as refugees who have an immediate need to develop their language skills for work and to practice local pronunciation, and travelers' children have been interested in many projects; but these groups do not have ready access to the new devices.
Indeed, the work with mobile communities by Danaher, Moriarty, and Danaher (2009) draws attention to the fact that access to relevant technology is often restricted to the reach and length of specific projects. It has also been argued that the use of mobile devices excludes certain students who have physical difficulties. If they are able to listen to digital speech books or podcasts instead of reading digital speech books or podcasts, learning impairments or dyslexia need not be removed (Barton, Penny, & Riordan, 2007).
In testing and assessing all mobile-learning developments, it is advisable to include a number of target users and a variety of physical settings.
Mobile learning technologies definitely have advantages in language learning. When students enjoy using mobile learning tools, they care for keep using them and they are to experience even academic gains. The mobile technologies are perceived as an effective tool in improving communication and language learning. Cell phones are the most effective communication medium of all modern communication devices, much richer than e-mail or chat as it can function as a learning device despite its technological limitations.
The learner monitors the learning process and development in his or her own space depending on his or her cognitive state with such a learning device.
Learning by mobile phone or m-learning, also allows students the ability to learn while they are on the bus, outdoors or at work doing their part-time jobs. Although mobile device learning service has some disadvantages, as a small screen, reading difficulty on such a screen, data storage and multimedia constraints, and the like, it has its own constraints. Many of the handsets are not intended for educational purposes.
It is challengable for learners to use them to carry out the teacher's mission. For doing tasks outside of the classroom, mobile learning technology is more useful. These activities encourage learning to be more closely associated with experiments in the real world. SMS ore message based learning is another advantage in the use of more technologies in learning process in which receiving desired text messages facilitates learning outside the classroom and lets students benefit from the experimentation of their teachers with mobile technology.
Another mobile learning topic in which learning materials are built to be combined with aspects of the physical world is game-based learning. In such settings, the use of mobile technology, which serves as a link between the real world of knowledge and the visual world of gaming, encourages learning activities. For example, TimeLab is a game about climate change and its impacts. As they advance in the game, players succeed in getting information about the implementation of potential new environmental laws through their mobile devices in different places. They will discuss the outcome of the game in the classroom later on.
Modern technologies attracts students more than traditional methods, and as a result, they spend more time on educational tasks. Observations show that the integration of technology into foreign language teaching helps to increase student achievement and also reduces the number of omissions. Students who are able to use technology in learning a foreign language understand the complex topics more deeply and are likely to be able to recall information later in life and use it to solve problems in extracurricular situations.
The researches describe the following features of mobile devices we:
- social interactivity: data exchange;
- contextual sensitivity;
- possibility of connection;
The spread of the market has increased the popularity of mobile phones, and it is satisfying for teachers to provide software to students in the learning process. In addition, mobile phones are much cheaper than laptops and have access to the Internet.
While mobile devices have many advantages in learning services, they have small size, screen storage, and multimedia limitations. Therefore, it is difficult for students to use mobile devices to complete tasks given by teachers.
There are many apps available in the Google Play Store for learning every language skill. In the competitive world of technological advances, a wide variety of applications offer countless types of user-friendly applications. With these English language applications, EFL students can enjoy the following benefits:
- practice any language skills at any time, anywhere.
- Students do not need to carry pens, paper and books.
- Students can take a test on different skills of the language of instruction.
- They can get applications for free.
Learning English with the help of smartphones and applications is really fun, saves time and it is economical. However, there are many applications for learning English and it is challenging to choose the right application.
In conclusion, we can offer language learners a rich learning environment through mobile phones, in other word m-learning will be led by a student, not a teacher. Speaking and listening skills in mobile-based learning require improved applications due to hardware weaknesses.
Thus, m-learning demonstrates the flexibility and versatility of use in language learning. Encourages language teachers to introduce learning through mobile devices, which offer the prospect of ensuring a continuous learning process in school and out of school.
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