Дата публикации: 06.05.2022
Toleuishov Aulet Aitbaevich
Master’s degree second course,
KazNRTU named Satbayeva,
Republic of Kazakhstan. Almaty city
Recently, theoretical approaches to modernization have again attracted increasing attention after they have long been sidelined by research in the field of the history of time. Starting with a scientific and historical essay of the 1960s and 70s, Axel Schildt discusses the path of the concept of modernization in historical science and its critical reflection; in conclusion, he describes the history of Germany from the point of view of theoretical approaches to modernization.
In particular, very different approaches to the theory of modernization – we should not talk about the theory of modernization in the singular - claim to explain how traditional or pre-modern modern societies arise, respectively. For this, as a rule, a set of mobilizing factors is presented, which can be studied as a criterion of the transformation process. At another stage of the theory's development, the modernization of already modern societies is also considered as "reflexive modernization".
However, with regard to modernization theoretical approaches, historical science has become calm for two reasons. First, proposals for the theory of other disciplines are usually actively discussed by historians when they first receive wider attention as a potential new paradigm of historiography; in this case, it was several decades ago. On the other hand, approaches to the theory of modernization are borrowing from the social and political sciences, which from some "turns" have been replaced by cultural studies in the broad sense as the main reference value of historical science - as far as this will be permanent, it will still be proved. In this regard, a scientific and historical essay is recommended, the beginning of which goes back to the space of meetings, in particular, sociology and historical science, since the 1960s and early 70s.
The very concept of prefabricated houses in which the main connecting elements are reinforced concrete frame and sandwich panels began to be implemented in the 20s of the 20th century, where it was necessary to solve the housing problems of post-war Europe, the authors of the concept of such houses were eminent architects like Le Corbusier and this concept was considered economically advantageous as houses that are manufactured in factories and a sandwich panel is mounted on the finished reinforced concrete frame, which could save a lot of time during construction and installation work. However, after the beginning of the 90s, there was a trend for the renovation of this type of housing, as their facade and planning solutions did not fully meet the needs of the new post-industrial society, and this gave a leap to build new approaches to improve the same type of houses.
However, all these innovations at the design stage were worked out in Western European countries and gradually began to be discussed in the CIS countries (in particular in the Russian Federation) after the 2010s
Germany was at the forefront of the redevelopment and renovation of panel houses at the end of the twentieth century, in which the leading concept of urban planning was the concept of "compact cities" or "short-distance cities", protecting the morphotype of historical cities. Having a clear hierarchy of public spaces "courtyard-street-square". This concept gave rise to development after criticism of the modernist functional city. In addition, with the development, it gained success in the International Urban Planning Exhibition IBA 1987 in Berlin, and became widespread in Europe. Most cities in Germany have proved their commitment to this concept. The "city of short distances" has become synonymous with the convenience of living, and the functionality of the districts: compactness, concentration, comfort for pedestrians, heterogeneous use and polycentricism – have become a condition for the success of the city.
The concept of housing as an industrial product ("machines for life") was inspired by the ideas of architectural modernism of the early twentieth century (Le Corbusier et al.). For most of Europe, these ideas remained unrealized. After the devastation of the Second World War, Europe experienced an acute shortage of housing, and this created conditions for the practical application of pre-war ideas of industrial methods in construction. In the Eastern European region, which was largely controlled by the Soviet Union, the most intensive construction of new housing in cities was carried out centrally by the state. This happened for a number of reasons. A sharp quantitative increase in housing needs in large cities led to the decision to start mass housing construction carried out by industrial methods. Labor and time savings were achieved due to industrialization and a high degree of mechanization of the construction process. Seamless production of housing elements in factory conditions was achieved. The elements of the case were assembled at the construction site in a relatively short time.
The rhetoric of the "modern movement" in architecture has created revolutionary models for the development of the city and the house of the future. They are embodied in policy documents, such as the "Athens Charter", created in the main part by Le Corbusier on the basis of discussions at the CIAM Congress in Athens in 1933. According to the Athens Charter, the spatial division of urban functions was announced, in contrast to the historically established structure of traditional settlements. Residential areas should be developed within the framework of the concept of hierarchically structured residential areas consisting of micro regions, etc. Public service facilities should also be hierarchically structured according to the type of daily, periodic and episodic level of service, located in the space of the residential environment in accordance with their level.
Paradoxically at first glance, but in fact it is logical that this revolutionary vision of a new city, which existed before World War II, found partial realization in the post-war "socialist urbanization" of Eastern Europe, including the territory of the then Soviet Union, which, as a rule, was less developed than the western part of the continent.
Protz Ralf, Präsentation von Kompetenzzentrum Großsiedlungen, 2018.
НЕ ПРОСТО ПАНЕЛЬКИ немецкий опыт работы с районами массовой жилой застройки
Hunger B. Berlin auf dem Weg zur Metropole. Soziale Problemeder Stadterneuerung // Architektenkammer Berlin (Hg): Architektur in Berlin. Jahrbuch. – 1992.